Appendix F: Other Resources


This appendix contains a number of difference resources that may be of use to communities interested in sustainable forest management and ways to measure it.
F.1 Handbooks on Community and Sustainability Indicators
F.2 Organizations Working on Sustainable Forestry Issues
F.3 Forest Sustainability Initiatives and Efforts
F.4 Theoretical/Conceptual Work on Indicators and Sustainability
F.5 Data Sources
F.6 Sources of Funding

F.1 Handbooks on Community and Sustainability Indicators 
This section lists handbooks and guides which provide step-by-step information on how to initiate and carry out a community-wide indicator projects.
Community Culture and the Environment: A Guide to Understanding a Sense of Place, Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 842-B-01-003,
This Guide addresses the social and cultural aspects of community-based environmental protection. It includes technical tools for more effectively working with the public on environmental protection efforts. The tools include assessment methods, case studies, worksheets and checklists to define goals, identify community characteristics, analyze results and select and implement best strategies. The Guide is available from the National Center for Environmental Publications and Information:
The Community Indicators Handbook: Measuring Progress Toward Healthy and Sustainable Communities, by Redefining Progress, Tyler Norris Associates, and Sustainable Seattle (August 1997, 15 pp.)
This is a comprehensive, user-friendly, step-by-step guide to aid communities of all kinds in developing new measures of their overall health and well-being. The Handbook is designed to support the growing indicators movement as local government and business and grassroots leaders seek better ways to assess progress. It draws on the experience of dozens of projects around the United States, and presents how-to's and resources for tailoring an indicators project to the specific needs of a community. A wealth of information is included in numerous appendices, including a directory of indicators projects nationwide, data sources, and organizational resource listings. The Handbook is available from Redefining Progress at, website:

Guide to Sustainable Community Indicators, Second Edition, 1999, by Maureen Hart.
This is a useful tool for any community that has decided to develop and implement sustainability indicators. The Guide defines sustainability and indicators of sustainable community. It introduces a few key organizing frameworks for developing indicators and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of each one. The Guide provides specific examples of sustainability indicators and explains the difference between them and traditional measures. A list of community sustainability indicators, existing community indicator projects, data sources and other useful resources are included at the end. To order the Guide send an email to or see the order form at
Measuring Community Success and Sustainability: An Interactive Workbook, by Flora C., M. Kinsley, V. Luther, M. Wall, S. Odell, S. Ratner, J. Toposky, North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Iowa State University.
This workbook describes a process to help communities learn how to measure the local or regional impacts of economic and community development processes that enhance rural community sustainability. The approach used is inputs-activities-outputs-outcomes. Five main outcomes are discussed, including specific measures, sources of information and advice on implementation. These outcomes were chosen using results of a rural communities' survey, conducted by the North Central Regional Center, and include:

  • increased use of skills, knowledge and ability of local people;
  • strengthened relationships and communication, improved community initiative, responsibility and adaptability;
  • sustainable, healthy ecosystems with multiple community benefits; and
  • appropriately diverse and healthy economies.

The Workbook is available online at
Multiparty Monitoring for Sustainable Natural Resource Management, by Cassandra Moseley and Lisa Wilson, December 2002, available at or
This handbook is designed to help communities and their agency partners monitor activities related to ecosystem management and community forestry, especially implementation of the National Forest Plan. It is primarily focused on public-lands issues, especially in the West but many of the indicators could be adapted in different contexts. The Handbook offers suggestions about how to develop a multiparty monitoring program for four areas: employment results (quality jobs) of restoration and maintenance of public lands; utilization of by-products of ecosystem management; grants and other investments; ecological effects of fire restoration efforts.
Sustainable Forest Management Community Handbook for the Great Lakes Region, by Maureen McDonough, Leigh Ann Spence, and Wendy Hinrichs Sanders, May 2002, available at
This is a planning tool developed through a collaborative process including forest resource professionals and community leaders, and designed to help communities throughout the Great Lakes area. It offers step-by-step guidelines for communities on how to plan and evaluate their progress toward sustainable forest management. The handbook discusses the birth of criteria and indicators and provides a list of indicators for the Great Lakes area. Each indicator is supplemented with detailed guidance on how to find the necessary data and what additional resources to use. The handbook includes a series of case studies from the Great Lakes area.

User's Guide to Local Level Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management, by the Canadian Model Forest Network.
The guide describes 12 different 'Model Forests' where communities used the MP C&I as a basis for sustainable forest resource management. The guide documents' each model forest's approach to initiating a local level indicator program, selecting indicators, gathering data, and using and reporting on indicators. There are lists of relevant publications, complete sets of each model forest's indicators, a comparison of approaches to local level indicators across the model forest network, and contacts for more information. A free copy of the Guide in English or French (specify which) is available from, web site:
F.2 Organizations Working on Sustainable Forestry Issues  
This section lists various organizations working on sustainable forestry issues as well as some plans and reports on sustainable forest development.
American Forests -
American Forests is the nation's oldest nonprofit citizens' conservation organization. It was founded in 1875 by citizens concerned about the waste and abuse of the nation's forests. Its goals focus on assisting communities in planning and implementing tree and forest actions to restore and maintain healthy ecosystems and communities. AF also works with community-based forestry partners in both urban and rural areas to help them participate in national forest policy discussions.
Canadian Forest Service (CFS) -
The Forestry Act of 1988 in Canada mandated the Canadian Ministry of Forestry to promote sustainable development. This was also the first federal statute to incorporate the concept of sustainable development. This Statute is the cornerstone of Canada's 1992 National Forest Strategy: "Sustainable Forests: A Canadian Commitment." Canada participated in the development of criteria and indicators under the Montreal Process but it also has its own framework of criteria and indicators for sustainable development.
Canadian Forest Service Strategic Plan 1998-2003 -
The plan addresses issues such as global stewardship, industry competitiveness and market access, forest land-use pressures, involving the public in decision-making, and increasing complexity and responsibilities. It emphasizes the challenges in balancing economic, environmental and social needs and benefits. The Plan lays out the CFS strategic direction and goals. Concrete action items are included under each goal. The Plan has 9 strategic priorities and 96 commitments to help implement Canada's sustainable forest development policies and programs. No indicators are included in the plan.

Forest Stewardship Council -
This is a non-profit, international accrediting organization that evaluates and monitors product certifiers and encourages creation of national and regional initiatives. FSC certifies through the organizations SmartWood (Rainforest Alliance) and Scientific Certification Systems. There are ten certification criteria applied by FSC such as: meet all applicable laws, respect indigenous rights, maintain community well-being, conserve economic resources, protect biological diversity, maintain high conservation value forests, etc.

Fraser Basin, British Columbia: 'A Preliminary Framework for the Development of Sustainability Indicators for the Fraser Basin', Revised June 12, 2000, web site:
Provides good examples of sustainability goals and indicators organized in four categories:

  • Understanding sustainability
  • Caring for ecosystems
  • Strengthening communities
  • Improving decision-making

This is initial, theoretical work - no practical results are available yet. The draft framework includes 26 goals and numerous indicators. The report provides list of data sources, relevant publications and web sites.
The Great Lakes Forest Alliance, "Assessing Progress in Sustainable Forest Management: Proposed Criteria and Indicators for the upper Great Lakes Region", June 4, 1998, web site:
This is an excellent example of both theoretical and practical work to develop sustainable forest management (SFM) indicators. The work was carried out by a consulting team, which first organized two workshops to involve all interested stakeholders, reviewed a wide range of publications on SFM, and developed a set of indicators for three different scales:

  • state/province;
  • county/forest management unit; and
  • woodlot.

At the end, the GLFA scored the indicators for their value and utility. Using six criteria for good indicators for SFM (relevance to the value, measurability, sensitivity to change, practicality, understandability, and response oriented), the indicators were scored and organized in 5 tables (one for each criterion) with separate columns for each scale. More than 150 indicators are included - the number is too large but the consultants did not want to use their subjective judgment to screen out some of them. Resulting score can be a good indication of the usefulness of suggested indicators.

International Network of Forests and Communities -
Although it does not provide specific information on indicators, this web site gives extensive information about the U.S. forestry laws and initiatives, lists various forest-related networks, briefly describes the efforts of different forest community projects, and outlines the main challenges to community forestry. The site provides information on forestry issues in different countries as well.
The Inventory and Monitoring Institute (IMI)
IMI is a Forest Service nationally chartered organization, guided by a Board of Directors. The IMI provides technical consultation to Forest Service units with responsibilities for on-the-ground inventory, monitoring and planning activities. The Institute's work focuses the application of knowledge and technology to these areas of the information environment:

  • Data collection with sound inventory design and quality assurance;
  • Land classification using Bailey's world class Ecoregion Principles;
  • Information management using leading edge Forest Service information technology;
  • Information analysis to answer questions and address issues;
  • Knowledge sharing through technical assistance to other countries.

Of particular interest to users of the indicator toolkit, IMI provides resources, ideas and tools to assist groups in developing monitoring programs. Two particular initiatives, the CIFOR North American test of C&I and the LUCID tests of sustainability indicators at the forest management unit scale have been previously mentioned in this toolkit. These and all other institute resources are available at
Manomet Center for Conservation Science -
The Center is a non-profit organization in Maine that is involved in study for integration of forest industry economic goals with ecological health. Their main project, Shifting Mosaic Project, is a multi-year evaluation of ways in which sustainable forestry can meet the needs of Maine's human communities while helping to conserve its biodiversity.
Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators, by the Montreal Process Working Group -
This web site provides general information about the Montreal Process and lists all seven criteria and 67 indicators. Additional information is provided for selected criteria and indicators.
North American Test of Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forestry -
This report includes an independent review of various sets of criteria and indicators for sustainable forestry. It identifies some key problems with the standard indicators. Some problems include: no supporting or explanatory material; absent theoretical rationale for indicator selection; and indicators applicable at national level that do not translate well to the community level. At the end of the report is a table "Amalgamation of C&I appropriate for the North American Test," which presents interesting form of organization: principle - criterion - indicator. It also lists some specific indicators.
Roundtable on Sustainable Forests -
The Roundtable is an inclusive partnership of public and private organizations and individuals, promoting the national goal of sustainable forests through implementation of a set of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management that will lead to increased understanding and better decision-making. The Roundtable sponsored a series of workshops in spring 2000 to assess the state of knowledge and available data in the United States related to Montreal Process C&I.
SmartWood (Rainforest Alliance) -
This is a certification program for forests based on ten elements of sustainability that relate to: maintaining vitality, structure and functioning of the natural processes; protecting and restoring groundwater quality and quantity; and encouraging a natural regeneration of native species to protect valuable native gene pools, among others. (for the full list of ten criteria refer to the web site above).
Sustainable Resource Management -
This is a web site that lists (and provides links) in alphabetical order various initiatives related to sustainable resource management. Examples include: American Forest and Paper Association, FGDI - Sustainable Forest Data Working Group, Forest Health Monitoring, Forest Stewardship Council, International Forestry, etc.
Sustainability of the Northeastern Area, Database of Sustainability/Criteria and Indicators Efforts., by Sherri Wormstead, USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area, phone: (603) 868-7737.
Excellent list of initiatives/projects that address criteria and indicators of forest sustainability, including efforts internationally, nationally, and across the 20 states served by the USDA Forest Service's Northeastern Area. Provides links to many of the initiatives/projects. Classifies the sustainability efforts into the following main categories:

  • Forest sustainability efforts
  • Environmental/ecological indicator efforts
  • Sustainable Community/sustainable development efforts
  • Other efforts.

F-3. Forest Sustainability Initiatives and Efforts 
This section lists some initiatives for sustainable forestry and indicators for sustainable forest management at different levels - national, state, county or company.
Canadian Council of Forest Ministers (CCFM) Technical Report, Criteria and Indicators of sustainable forest management in Canada, 2000,
Example of national level implementation of C&I for sustainable forestry. Describes the CCFM Framework C&I for sustainable forest management. Includes five criteria somewhat similar to the Montreal Process C&I. Within each criterion there are several elements. For example, under Criterion 1 - Conservation of biological diversity - there are three elements: ecosystem diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity. This report provides some useful examples of indicators at national and providence levels in Canada.

Canadian Forest Service report "Sustainable Forest Development: The Mark of a Society", report delivered by Dr. Yvan Hardy.
This report provides a historic overview of the condition and use of the Canadian forests, beginning from the colonization times. Issues such as conservation, timber management, and regulation for revenue are receiving particular attention. The report ends with a discussion of what sustainable forest management means for Canadian forests and what the future holds in terms of aboriginal involvement and global challenges.
Canadian Model Forest Network -
The Canadian Model Forest Network web site provides extensive information including a searchable database of tips on how to develop an indicator initiative based on the work done in 10 different forests throughout Canada. Each model forest serves as a demonstration of partners representing a diversity of forest values, working together to achieve sustainable forest management.
Collins Wood -
Collins Wood is the first privately-owned forest products company in the United States to be comprehensively evaluated and independently certified by Scientific Certification Systems through the Forest Stewardship Council. It has also introduced the principles of The Natural Step into its operations.
Community Economic Development (CED) for Forest-Based Communities,
Featured here is the work of a three-year research project funded by Forest Renewal BC, 1997-2000. The research project identifies the most promising and appropriate Community Economic Development strategies and tools for strengthening local economic capacity in forest-based communities. Four communities in British Columbia partnered with Simon Fraser University's CED Center to identify and develop CED strategies and tools best suited to their own situations:

  • 100 Mile House (South Cariboo)
  • Nuxalk Band (Bella Coola)
  • Salmon Arm
  • The Lillooet Tribal Council

For each of the four communities there is a detailed case study that includes background information on the community, describes the process of community involvement and presents some results including indicators and trends (e.g., unemployment, forest-related industries and income, wildlife measures, water resources). This is not a project for developing and using sustainable forestry C&I but the case studies could be useful to some communities particularly interested in the social and economic aspects of sustainable forestry.
Franklin County Indicators of Sustainable Development, Franklin County (Maine), 1998,
This work was commissioned by the Western Mountains Alliance and Sustain Western Maine. It was compiled and prepared by David Olson of MaineWest Business Technology and Craig Freshley of the Maine Development Foundation. It will be updated as time and funds permit. Franklin County has 12 indicators classified under three topic areas:

  • Sustainable environment
  • Sustainable economy
  • Sustainable community.

Selected indicators are measured over a long period of time to identify a trend. However, many of these indicators are not a true measure of sustainability (e.g., percent of land in agricultural production, volume of sawtimber trees, and percent of minor arterial roads needing repair).

Gogebic County, Michigan, -
The sustainable forestry work in this county began in 1999 with the establishment of Forest Advisory Coordinating Team - a coalition of residents from all over the county, representing a wide range of professional backgrounds and interests. The Group first agreed upon a vision for sustainable forestry in the County and then developed indicators within the four key elements of this vision: forest management, economic health, ecological values and social/cultural values. The work is underway to collect data and implement the indicators to evaluate baseline conditions and trends, and promote sustainable resource use in the County.
Jackson Demonstration State Forest -
This is 50,000-acre forest in Mendocino County, California, purchased by the State of California for the purpose of "demonstration of economical forest management." A Citizens' Plan was developed to help decide management activities and to incorporate good science and innovative forest management together with full citizen input. The Plan outlines 14 key elements, such as full citizen participation and oversight of management, full protection of steams, watercourses and aquatic habitat, complete protection of old-growth stands and development of interconnected mature forest, elimination of clearcutting, and enhanced recreational potential.
Northeast Oregon Community Assessment Workgroup (NEOCAW), Union and Wallowa Counties, Oregon
This initiative began when several organizations in Northeast Oregon decided to form a group to design and implement social and economic assessment framework and process for Union and Wallowa Counties. The Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators were used as organizing framework. Later the group decided to expand their initial list of indicators to include some ecological measures. In a series of meetings with the local community residents, NEOCAW finalized the indicators and prepared a draft report.
For more information contact:
Elaine Kohrman, Natural Resource Planner
Wallowa-Whitman National Forest
P.O. Box 907, Baker City, OR 97814
Phone: 541-523-1331, Fax: 541-523-1315
The Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index Forest Accounts
(466 pages including charts; November 14, 2001; 2 volumes, $55; $35 per volume if purchased separately),
Volume 1 of the Nova Scotia GPI Forest Accounts indicates that Nova Scotia's forests are at a watershed juncture. Clearcutting and the liquidation of the province's forest wealth are occurring at unprecedented rates in the interests of immediate economic gain. The second Volume of the GPI Forest Accounts portrays "the new story." It describes a way forward, by presenting actual, viable, working examples of efforts to maintain and restore forest natural capital. It describes the harvest methods and economics of these operations in considerable detail, in order to provide practical, concrete information to interested wood lot owners and forest industries, and to governments willing to play a leadership role in supporting such efforts through appropriate incentives.
Report of the United States on the Criteria and Indicators for the Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests, 6-6-97.
This report provides excellent information about the implementation of the Montreal Process C&I at national level. In most cases, however, the information and data may not be useful at community level. The report is organized by strictly following the Montreal Process seven criteria and the sixty-seven indicators.
The Vermont Forest Resources Plan 1999-2008, Assessment Report and Key Indicators. Website:
The section on indicators includes a matrix with 26 key forest indicators, historical conditions, present conditions, and the projected trend in conditions. Trends are indicated as remaining relatively constant (=), showing some increase from past to present (+), or showing a decrease (-). Examples of listed indicators include: percent of forest area and change over time, percent and number of acres of non-industrial private ownership; percent of lakes and streams affected by acidic atmospheric deposition; volume of wood harvested per year; sawlog import; and number of educators trained.
F-4. Theoretical/Conceptual Work on Indicators and Sustainability 
Communicating Ecological Indicators to Decision Makers and the Public, by Schiller, A., C. T. Hunsaker, M. A. Kane, A. K. Wolfe, V. H. Dale, G. W. Suter, C. S. Russell, G. Pion, M. H. Jensen, and V. C. Konar. 2001. Conservation Ecology 5(1): 19. web site:
This article discusses the difficulties in communicating scientific information (in this case EPA's EMAP indicators) to non-scientists. It promotes the idea of using Common-Language Indicators (CLIs) and provides a list of EMAP and CLIs while explaining their relationship. For example, the general public is more interested in knowing "the level of contamination of forest plants by air pollution" instead of "foliar chemistry, lichen chemistry, dendrochemistry, and branch evaluations". The study discovered that the best approach is to describe the kinds of information that various combinations of indicators could provide about environmental conditions, rather than to describe what in particular has been measured or how measurements have been performed. The authors suggest five possible CLIs for forests:

  1. Contamination of forest plants by air pollution.
  2. The health of forest plants.
  3. Habitat quality for birds and deer
  4. Woodland productivity for forest products.
  5. Forest structure scenic rating.

Guidelines for Developing, Testing and Selecting Criteria and Indicators for Susutainable Forest Management, The CIFOR Criteria and Indicators Generic Template, 2000, by Prabhu, R., Colfer, C.J.P., Dudley, R.G.,
This manual provides methods for the development and evaluation of criteria and indicators (C&I) that can be used to assess the sustainability of forest management. The manual is written primarily for researchers, people or groups interested in evaluating C&I for assessments of forests in new areas, etc. The methods presented are aimed at the development of sets of C&I for natural forest at the forest management unit (FMU) level, especially in the tropics, but they can be used for any other type of forest. The final chapter (9) provides possible baseline sets of C&I, available to users for evaluation and testing in their own contexts.

LUCID (Local Unit Criteria and Indicator Development project), Frameworks for Criteria and Indicator Development, LUCID Update, Issue 5, April 2001, web site:
This publication provides a way to classify various frameworks for developing indicators into six main types:

  • Issues-based
  • Goal-based
  • Sectoral-based
  • Ecosystem component-based
  • Causal-based
  • Systems-based.

According to this classification the Montreal Process uses a hybrid framework that consists of some aspects of an ecological systems approach in conjunction with some aspects of issues and goal-based frameworks. LUCID has adopted a systems approach.
Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, Hierarchy for indicators of sustainable production and sustainable community development: Veleva V., Hart M., Greiner T., and C. Crumbley, "Indicators of sustainable production," Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 9 (5), October 2001, pp. 447-452.
Monitoring for forest management unit scale sustainability: The local unit criteria and indicators development (LUCID) test (Technical Edition). Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service Inventory and Monitoring Report No. 4. Wright, P. A., Alward, G., Hoesktra, T. W., Tegler, B., & Turner, M. G. (2002).
Monitoring for forest management unit scale sustainability: The local unit criteria and indicators development (LUCID) test (Management Edition). Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service Inventory and Monitoring Report No. 5. Wright, P. A., Alward, G., Colby, J. L., Hoesktra, T. W., Tegler, B., & Turner, M. G. (2002).
F-5. Data Sources 
This section lists some databases and other sources of information for obtaining data at local (county) level for implementing indicators on sustainable forests.
Bureau of the Census ( - provides good data at county/municipality level on population, employment, housing, etc. It is very easy to use but most of the data are available only for every ten years (e.g., 1970,1980, 1990, 2000) so yearly changes are difficult to track.
Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Data Base Retrieval System, Southern Research Station, North Central Forest Experiment Station, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Pacific Northwest Research Station,
Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) research units have participated in establishing a National Data Base Retrieval System (DBRS). This cooperative database is comprised of common forest resource attributes using compatible formats and represented by a standard set of inventory tables. It allows an interactive dialog that will produce a set of user-defined tables for any state, county, or geographical area within the NC/RMT/NE/SRS regional boundaries. FIA research units also have made the Eastwide/Westwide data available for downloading (tree, plot, county). Work is underway to include data for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) FIA unit. Ultimately, all contiguous states within the Nation will be represented in the FIA Data Base Retrieval System. This database is an excellent source of information for implementing some indicators at community level. Getting historic data, however, is somewhat problematic.
OIK/OS Web-based Tool, developed by the Wilderness Society.
This is an on-line, map-based tool for getting economic trends information. Located at OIK/OS offers point-and-click creation of custom economic profiles for use in conservation, sustainable development and other planning efforts. OIK/OS includes income and employment data for every county in the Eastern U.S. Using an active mapping interface, you select the county, counties, state or states of interest and, with another click or two, OIK/OS generates tables, graphs, charts and thematic maps on the fly for the geographic area you have selected.
Sustainable Community Indicator Program (SCIP) by Environment Canada -, 12/2002.
SCIP Version 2.0 was introduced as a stand-alone software package designed to assist in the development of indicator programs and represents:

  • An all-in-one starting point for creating, selecting, analyzing and reporting indicators
  • Comprehensive help and guidance on indicator development
  • a means to consistently document indicators and data
  • a set of "core" indicators that are periodically updated
  • a place to exchange indicators and collaborate with others.

Environment Canada is currently working on making SCIP an interactive web site to make it more flexible and easy to use. Users will be able to visit the SCIP web site with any Internet browser and access the core indicators data and other indicator data submitted by participating clients. These data will be stored on a central server maintained by the SCIP team. Data will be viewed in tables from your Internet browser or downloaded to your local computer. The web site will also offer tips, tutorials and links to assist users in performing analyses and generating reports.
F-6 Sources of Funding  
FAO Database -
Includes sources of funding for activities in support of sustainable forest management. The database contains links to the web pages of agencies that present clear guidelines and procedures for applying for their funds. The database can be queried by type of activity, country, type of applicant and the amount of funding required.


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